Mucous is a general secretion of the body especially in the linings of respiratory tract, stomach etc. This is meant to lubricate the tract as well as arrest any incoming foreign particulates through air during respiration. So it is also a protective function as it arrests and remove foreign particles from the body.
The mucus from tract is generally pushed or moved towards outside by means of cilia. In case of old age i.e elderly people or during infections or inflammation of the tract, their function is drastically declined leading to accumulation of mucous or phlegm.
This less viscous secretion on accumulation gets thicker due to dehydration and forms phlegm.
Mucous or phlegm accumulation is sever during conditions of respiratory disorders like Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) , bronchitis, common cold, flu etc. This phlegm accumulation is not only creates a congestive feeling in the neck and chest but is also suffocating sometimes. Phlegm accumulation has other problems i.e. it enhances infection growth and effectiveness of anti-infective agents is also low.
It is also simple indication that phlegm accumulates due to aggravation of infection or inflammation.
Treatment of phlegm includes use of proper anti-biotics to control the infection and also anti-inflammatory drugs to control the inflammation.
It is also advisable to dectrease oily diet,
Decrease your self exposures to cold wind or air. Have warm clothing.
Stay away or avoid dusty environmnets, use dust filter masks for the purpose if neccesary.
Have plenty of water to decrease the viscousness of phlegm so as to be easily removed out of respiratory tract by cilia.
Even mucloytics i.e agents which break up the phlegm can be used to decrease the phlegm thickness and is easy to Get rid of Phlegm from the throat.
Manual removal in case of profuse accumulations is advisable. This can be done by aspirators meant to remove the phlegm.